The reading from page 102 to 123 talks about the use of kerning, tracking, line spacing, alignment, and vertical text. And how to appropriately use these elements of type to make it more comfortable when reading, and how designers can use these adjustment creatively to achieve a certain purpose.
Kerning is the space between two individual letters. The asymmetry of English letters could have imbalanced kerning without adjustments. Usually, we use optical kerning to headlines and metric kerning to text.
Tracking is the overall spacing of a group of letters, a line, or the whole text, in order to make the text block more loose or tighter. I also learned that we should not use loose tracking with italics letters.
Line spacing, also called leading, is the distance between the baselines of letters. Larger line spacing is easier to read with body text, but tighter line spacing can create collisions between letters that could have some special effect.
Different alignments include centered, justified, flush left, and flush right. And vertical text should be carefully used especially on lowercase letters, since Latin letters are not created to be lined vertically. So usually vertical text should use capital letters, or just rotate the text from horizontal to vertical.